Aluminum

Chemical symbol/abbreviations:

Al

Form commonly found in stormwater:

Dissolved in water as Al3+, Al(OH)4, particulate aluminum.

Adverse human impacts:

High aluminum intake is associated with vitamin deficiencies, nerve damage and cancer.[i]
People with kidney damage are particularly susceptible to aluminum toxicity.[ii]

Adverse impacts on the environment:

Dissolved Al3+ is toxic to plants as it affects roots and prevents nutrient intake.[iii]
In acidic waters (pH 5.0-5.5), aluminum is toxic to fish at 0.1 mg/L.[iv]
Dissolved aluminum interferes with fish gill functions and can cause fish to lose electrolytes.[v]

Stormwater Treatment to Remove Aluminum

Background:

Aluminum is present in many soils and minerals and is generally present in ground and surface water at low levels.[vii] Acid rain can dissolve aluminum in soils and transport it into water bodies in a dissolved state.[viii]  Aluminum compounds are added to sewage to facilitate phosphate removal and as part of the paper production process as well.[xiii]
Aluminum is mined from bauxite ore.[ix] Australia, Guinea, Brazil, Jamaica, and the former U.S.S.R. are major bauxite producers, while the U.S. produces only one percent of the aluminum it uses.[x]  Secondary production from aluminum scrap is popular due to the high cost and energy input required in refining aluminum ore.[xi]
The primary uses of aluminum include auto parts, beverage cans, home construction and aluminum foil.[xii]

U.S. EPA recommended water quality criteria: [vi]

Freshwater – Aquatic Organisms (Total Recoverable; pH 6.5-9.0)Saltwater– Aquatic OrganismsHuman Health for the consumption of
Acute (µg/L)Chronic (µg/L)Acute (µg/L)Chronic (µg/L)Water + Organism (µg/L)Organism Only (µg/L)
75087nananana

PROJECT PROFILES

Appendices

[i] Lenntech, Aluminum (Al) and water, http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/water/aluminium/aluminum-and-water.htm (last visited Aug. 12, 2010).

[ii] Lenntech, supra.

[iii] Lenntech, supra.

[iv] Lenntech, supra.

[v] Lenntech, supra.

[vi] U.S. EPA, National Recommended Water Quality Criteria, http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/wqctable/index.html#U (last visited July 7, 2010).

[vii] Lenntech, supra.

[viii] Lenntech, supra.

[ix] Univ. of Illinois, Primary Metals – Aluminum Smelting & Refining, http://www.istc.illinois.edu/info/library_docs/manuals/primmetals/chapter4.htm (last visited Aug. 12, 2010).

[x] Metals Advisor – Bauxite Mining, http://www.energysolutionscenter.org/heattreat/metalsadvisor/aluminum/process_descriptions/bauxite_mining.htm (last visited Aug. 12, 2010).

[xi] Univ. of Illinois, Primary Metals – Aluminum Smelting & Refining, http://www.istc.illinois.edu/info/library_docs/manuals/primmetals/chapter4.htm (last visited Aug. 12, 2010).

[xii] Univ. of Illinois, Primary Metals – Aluminum Smelting & Refining, http://www.istc.illinois.edu/info/library_docs/manuals/primmetals/chapter4.htm (last visited Aug. 12, 2010).

[xiii] Lenntech, Aluminum (Al) and water, http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/water/aluminium/aluminum-and-water.htm (last visited Aug. 12, 2010).

Learn About Aquip
The StormwateRx Aquip® industrial filtration system uses an innovative enhanced sand filtration process to effectively remove soluble and insoluble aluminum and other metals as well as oils, suspended solids, organics and nutrients from industrial stormwater runoff.

Learn About Purus
The Purus™ Stormwater Polishing System (previously known as the AquiPlus) provides the most advanced level of stormwater treatment, and is designed for challenging stormwater conditions or targeted pollutant removal.

2017-05-26T16:11:55+00:00
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